Amir Temur Mausoleum
Amir Temur mausoleum was built in 1404 for Timur's grandson Muhhamed Sultan. He had to become heir apparent of throne after Timur, but in 1404 he died and Timur ordered to buid big mausoleum for his loved grandson. In 1405 Timur died in Otrar city and his sons decided to move his body and bury him near his favorite grandson. From that time this mausoleum was called "burial-vault of timurids". Here two sons of Timur were buried-Shahruh and Miranshah, also second grandson Ulugbek, spiritual director of Timur Muslim sheikh from Medin-Mir Seid Bereke and some Shah-Hodja.
Amir Temur mausoleum consists of several parts: yard of Muhammed Sultan ensemble, to the right of mausoleum hanaka(the place where Muslims can pray), to the left is medresse and in the center the mausoleum itself decorated from each side with minarets. Unfortunately neither the medresse nor hanaka were saved. In 1996 it was big reconstruction here when Samarkand celebrated 660 years from Amir Temur's birthday. Original design is saved inside. Decorators only drew on original thin layer of paint.
Every headstone is made from marble, only Timur's headstone is from nephritis, it was brought by order of Ulugbek and put on grave of Timur. All headstones in upper mausoleum are saved very well, but in lower because of floods almost all of them were destroyed. Lattice that set off all headstones was made in 15th century from marble by Ulugbek order.
All headstones were opened in June 1941. There is a legend that related to this event. Before opening three old men told scientists not to disturb ashes of dead, especially Timur's ashes, because by opening his grave they could restore the spirit of war. But scientists had goal to know whether Timur was beheaded, and Timur was lame, because in history Timur is mentioned as Tamerlan-"iron lame man". After opening sarcophagus scientists saw grave where skeleton of Timur was. By analysis of skull bone anthropologist Gerasimov made first portrait of Timur and his entire dynasty. Scientists concluded that he was really lame because his one leg was shorter than another. They also established that Ulugbek was beheaded. His skull was near skeleton. Timur's skeleton was examined in Leningrad, and then all remains were returned back to the grave. Two days later World War Two began and many citizens were saying that it started because of opening Timur's grave.